What About Medications?
Antipsychotic medications have been available since the mid-1950s. They have
greatly improved the outlook for individual patients. These medications reduce
the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia and usually allow the patient to function
more effectively and appropriately. Antipsychotic drugs are the best treatment
now available, but they do not "cure" schizophrenia or ensure that
there will be no further psychotic episodes. The choice and dosage of medication
can be made only by a qualified physician who is well trained in the medical
treatment of mental disorders. The dosage of medication is individualized for
each patient, since people may vary a great deal in the amount of drug needed
to reduce symptoms without producing troublesome side effects.
The large majority of people with schizophrenia show substantial improvement
when treated with antipsychotic drugs. Some patients, however, are not helped
very much by the medications and a few do not seem to need them. It is difficult
to predict which patients will fall into these two groups and to distinguish
them from the large majority of patients who do benefit from treatment with
A number of new antipsychotic drugs (the so-called "atypical antipsychotics")
have been introduced since 1990. The first of these, clozapine (Clozaril®),
has been shown to be more effective than other antipsychotics, although the
possibility of severe side effects in particular, a condition called
agranulocytosis (loss of the white blood cells that fight infection)
requires that patients be monitored with blood tests every one or two weeks.
Even newer antipsychotic drugs, such as risperidone (Risperdal®) and olanzapine
(Zyprexa®), are safer than the older drugs or clozapine, and they also may
be better tolerated. They may or may not treat the illness as well as clozapine,
however. Several additional antipsychotics are currently under development.
Antipsychotic drugs are often very effective in treating certain symptoms of
schizophrenia, particularly hallucinations and delusions; unfortunately, the
drugs may not be as helpful with other symptoms, such as reduced motivation
and emotional expressiveness. Indeed, the older antipsychotics (which also went
by the name of "neuroleptics"), medicines like haloperidol (Haldol®)
or chlorpromazine (Thorazine®), may even produce side effects that resemble
the more difficult to treat symptoms. Often, lowering the dose or switching
to a different medicine may reduce these side effects; the newer medicines,
including olanzapine (Zyprexa®), quetiapine (Seroquel®), and risperidone
(Risperdal®), appear less likely to have this problem. Sometimes when people
with schizophrenia become depressed, other symptoms can appear to worsen. The
symptoms may improve with the addition of an antidepressant medication.
Patients and families sometimes become worried about the antipsychotic medications
used to treat schizophrenia. In addition to concern about side effects, they
may worry that such drugs could lead to addiction. However, antipsychotic medications
do not produce a "high" (euphoria) or addictive behavior in people
who take them.
Another misconception about antipsychotic drugs is that they act as a kind
of mind control, or a "chemical straitjacket." Antipsychotic drugs
used at the appropriate dosage do not "knock out" people or take away
their free will. While these medications can be sedating, and while this effect
can be useful when treatment is initiated particularly if an individual is quite
agitated, the utility of the drugs is not due to sedation but to their ability
to diminish the hallucinations, agitation, confusion, and delusions of a psychotic
episode. Thus, antipsychotic medications should eventually help an individual
with schizophrenia to deal with the world more rationally.
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